Simple and plural nouns
Carla M.
em 25 de Junho de 2019

Singular and Plural Nouns in English

Rule 1

Most nouns are made plural by adding -s to the end of the singular form.

For Examples:

  • car – cars
  • bag – bags
  • table – tables
  • house – houses
  • dog – dogs

Rule 2

Singular nouns that end in ‘s’, ‘x’, ‘z’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’,or ‘ss’, form the plural by adding –es.

For Examples:

  • bus – buses
  • bench – benches
  • box – boxes
  • dish – dishes
  • truss – trusses
  • marsh – marshes
  • lunch – lunches
  • tax – taxes
  • blitz – blitzes
  • watch – watches

Excepting: 

  • fez – fezzes
  • gas –  gasses
  • quiz – quizzes
  • bus – busses

Rule 3

The plural form of some nouns that end in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ is made by changing the ending to -ves.

For Examples:

  • half – halves
  • hoof – hooves
  • calf – calves
  • elf – elves
  • shelf – shelves
  • leaf – leaves
  • loaf – loaves
  • thief – thieves
  • wolf – wolves
  • life – lives
  • knife – knives
  • scarf – scarves
  • wife –  wives 

Excepting:

  • cuff – cuffs
  • knockoff – knockoffs
  • chef – chefs
  • belief – beliefs
  • roof – roofs
  • chief – chiefs

Rule 4

Nouns ending in -o:

Nouns that end in ‘o’ preceded by a vowel are made plural by adding -s.

For Examples:

  • radio – radios
  • stereo – stereos
  • video  – videos

Nouns that end in “o” preceded by a consonant are made plural by adding -es.

For Examples:

  • potato – potatoes
  • tomato – tomatoes
  • hero – heroes
  • echo – echoes
  • veto – vetoes
  • domino – dominoes

Excepting: 

  • piano – pianos
  • photo – photos
  • halo – halos
  • soprano – sopranos

Rule 5

Nouns ending in ‘y‘:

When the ‘y’ follows a consonant, changing ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding –es:

For Examples:

  • city – cities
  • candy – candies
  • country – countries
  • family – families
  • cherry – cherries
  • lady – ladies
  • puppy – puppies
  • party – parties

When the ‘y’ follows a vowel, the plural is formed by retaining the ‘y’ and adding –s:

For Examples:

  • day – days
  • holiday – holidays
  • ray – rays
  • boy – boys
  • toy – toys
  • key – keys
  • donkey – donkeys

Rule 6

Changing the spelling of singular noun:

For Examples:

  • person – people
  • ox – oxen
  • man – men
  • woman – women
  • caveman – cavemen
  • policeman – policemen
  • child – children
  • tooth – teeth
  • foot – feet
  • goose – geese
  • mouse – mice
  • mouse – lice

Rule 7

Some nouns use the same singular and plural form:

For Examples:

  • aircraft – aircraft
  • barracks – barracks
  • deer – deer
  • gallows – gallows
  • moose – moose
  • salmon – salmon
  • hovercraft – hovercraft
  • spacecraft – spacecraft
  • series – series
  • species – species
  • means – means
  • offspring – offspring
  • deer – deer
  • fish – fish
  • sheep –  sheep

Rule 8

Some nouns are of Latin/Greek/French Origin:

For Examples:

Nouns of Latin Origin:

  • alumnus – alumni/alumnuses
  • apex – apices/apeces
  • appendix – appendices/ appendixes

Nouns of French Origin:

For Examples:

  • chateau – chateaux/chateaus
  • bureau – bureaux/ bureaus
  • tableau – tableaux/tableaus

Nouns of Greek Origin:

For Examples:

  • diagnosis – diagnoses
Porto Alegre / RS
Graduação: Letras (IPA Metodista)
Gramática em Inglês Conversação em Inglês
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